Authors: Sarah Nusbaum, Adrian Giovanni Medina, Bohree Kim, Sarah Torosyan, and Seth R. Narine


Many healthcare organizations around the United States have developed and implemented Hospital-based Violence Intervention Programs (HVIPs) with the goal of addressing the pressing public health challenge of intentional violence. This literature review discusses the existing evidence on the efficacy of HVIPs, including the components necessary in highly successful models, barriers to success, and cost-effectiveness. The presented literature includes relevant studies published within the last 20 years and guided by four predetermined research questions around the necessary components of effective HVIPs; barriers to success in developing and implementing HVIPs; the impact of HVIPs on recidivism for intentional injuries in individuals ages 15 to 24; and the cost-effectiveness of HVIPs. The literature suggests that HVIPs are beneficial for healthcare organizations, as they generally reduce recidivism rates and contain costs. More research is needed on the ancillary benefits that these programs provide to individuals with intentional injuries. Although a limited number of these programs have been thoroughly evaluated, existing studies have illuminated best practices, including intensive case management, hospital leadership buy-in, and strong partnerships between hospitals and CBOs. These best practices can help to mitigate common barriers, such as identifying eligible HVIP participants and coordinating the program with internal and external stakeholders. 

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